MicroReg
Minireg
SolHy
Ad-venta, ad venta, ad-venta, adventa
Ad-venta, ad venta, ad-venta, adventa
Ad-venta, ad venta, ad-venta, adventa
Ad-venta, ad venta, ad-venta, adventa
Ad-venta, ad venta, ad-venta, adventa
Ad-venta, ad venta, ad-venta, adventa
Ad-venta, ad venta, ad-venta, adventa
Ad-venta, ad venta, ad-venta, adventa
Ad-venta, ad venta, ad-venta, adventa
Ad-venta, ad venta, ad-venta, adventa

Storage

Storage in liquid form is very expensive. It requires significant investment and substantial facilities for the liquefaction process, conservation and making it operational in liquid form at 20 Kelvin (-253°C !).

This form of storage is used for very particular applications.

Historically hydrogen has been strored in gas form under pressure. Practically storage, gaseous hydrogen must be pressurized to several hundred atmospheres and stored in a pressure vessel or tank (made of steel or composite material).

Main issues:

  • Poor volume density
    Fuel Energy density (kWh/l)
    Hydrogen 2 (to 700 bar)
    Natural gas 3 (to 200 bar)
    Diesel 8 (liquid)
  • Safety (real or perceived)
  • Energy expenditure required for compression (uses 10 to 25% of gas energy content)

One third and very promising alternative is to store hydrogen in the form of metal hydrides which have been under intense scrutiny for many years, offering safe, reversible hydrogen storage, with an excellent energy efficiency (no compression). Main issues are then the temperature control.

Basic considerations

Hydrogen is:

  • the simplest atom form (1 electron, 1 proton)
  • the lightest and most abundant element in the universe (combined with oxygen in water and with carbon in hydrocarbons)
  • ...and has the highest energy density per kilogram in comparison with other combustible fuels, particularly natural gas.
Energy density (NCV) kWh/kg

Although hydrogen has a very high mass energy density, the fact that it is a very light gas makes its storage and transportation real challenges. The aim of hydrogen storage technologies is thus to reduce the volume that hydrogen naturally occupies in its thermodynamically stable state under ambient conditions.